Border walls have recently proliferated and become a global phenomenon with about a third of the countries having at least one wall or fence along its borders. This trend contrasts the idea of the global village and fits into a trend towards deglobalization. So far little attention has been given to their unintended effect. This article fills this gap by developing a gravity model for the years 1990-2014 regarding 118 countries, 44 (37%) of which had a wall during the research period. The impact of border structures on cross-border trade is economically and statistically significant. Countries separated by a wall trade on average 4 to 73 percent less than would ceteris paribus be the case if the border wall did not exist.

border wall, border fence, trade, gravity
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)
hdl.handle.net/1765/123704
ISS Working Papers - General Series
ISS Working Paper Series / General Series
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

Kamwela, V.K, & van Bergeijk, P.A.G. (2020). The border walls of (de)globalization. ISS Working Paper Series / General Series (Vol. 651). International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/123704