Left ventricular (LV) blood flow is an inherently complex time-varying 3-D phenomenon, where 2-D quantification often ignores the effect of out-of-plane motion. In this study, we describe high frame rate 4-D echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) using a prototype matrix transesophageal transducer and a dynamic LV phantom for testing the accuracy of echo-PIV in the presence of complex flow patterns. Optical time-resolved tomographic PIV (tomo-PIV) was used as a reference standard for comparison. Echo-PIV and tomo-PIV agreed on the general profile of the LV flow patterns, but echo-PIV smoothed out the smaller flow structures. Echo-PIV also underestimated the flow rates at greater imaging depths, where the PIV kernel size and transducer point spread function were large relative to the velocity gradients. We demonstrate that 4-D echo-PIV could be performed in just four heart cycles, which would require only a short breath-hold, providing promising results. However, methods for resolving high velocity gradients in regions of poor spatial resolution are required before clinical translation.

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Keywords 4-D echo-PIV, 4-D ultrasound, Echo particle image velocimetry, High frame rate ultrasound, Left ventricle, Tomographic PIV, Ultrafast ultrasound, Ultrasound image velocimetry, Vector flow imaging, Volumetric flow
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2019.11.020, hdl.handle.net/1765/123818
Journal Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Citation
Voorneveld, J.D, Saaid, H. (Hicham), Schinkel, C. (Christiaan), Radeljic, N. (Nikola), Lippe, B. (Boris), Gijsen, F.J.H, … Bosch, J.G. (2020). 4-D Echo-Particle Image Velocimetry in a Left Ventricular Phantom. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2019.11.020