Introduction. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method to collect samples from the respiratory tract. Usually, a thermoelectric cooling module is required to collect sufficient EBC volume for analyses. In here, we assessed the feasibility of cytokine and chemokine detection in EBC collected directly from the ventilator circuit without the use of a cooling module: swivel-derived exhaled breath condensate (SEBC). Methods. SEBC was prospectively collected from the swivel adapter and stored at -80°C. The objective of this study was to detect cytokines and chemokines in SEBC with a multiplex immunoassay. Secondary outcomes were to assess the correlation between cytokine and chemokine concentrations in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters, systemic inflammation parameters, and hemodynamic parameters. Results. Twenty-nine SEBC samples were obtained from 13 ICU patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, and IL-17 were detected in more than 90% of SEBC samples, and significant correlations between multiple cytokines and chemokines were found. Several significant correlations were found between cytokines and chemokines in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters and serum lactate concentrations. Conclusion. This pilot study showed that it is feasible to detect cytokines and chemokines in SEBC samples obtained without a cooling module. Despite small sample size, correlations were found between cytokines and chemokines in SEBC and mechanical ventilation parameters, as well as serum lactate concentrations. This simple SEBC collection method provides the opportunity to collect EBC samples in large prospective ICU cohorts.

dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2696317, hdl.handle.net/1765/124139
Disease Markers
Department of Intensive Care

Van Der Zee, P. (Philip), Van Walree, I. (Inez), Fijen, J.-W. (Jan-Willem), van Houte, A.J, Van Velzen-Blad, H. (Heleen), Rijkers, G.T, … Endeman, H. (2020). Cytokines and chemokines are detectable in swivel-derived exhaled breath condensate (SEBC): A pilot study in mechanically ventilated patients. Disease Markers, 2020. doi:10.1155/2020/2696317