Targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of PDT due to significantly better tumor responses and less normal tissue damage. Here we investigated if the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted PDT using cetuximab-IRDye700DX is fluence rate dependent. Cell survival after treatment with different fluence rates was investigated in three cell lines. Singlet oxygen formation was investigated using the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide and singlet oxygen sensor green (SOSG). The long-term response (to 90 days) of solid OSC-19-luc2-cGFP tumors in mice was determined after illumination with 20, 50, or 150 mW·cm−2. Reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to monitor therapy. Singlet oxygen was formed during illumination as shown by the increase in SOSG fluorescence and the decreased response in the presence of sodium azide. Significantly more cell death and more cures were observed after reducing the fluence rate from 150 mW·cm−2 to 20 mW·cm−2 both in-vitro and in-vivo. Photobleaching of IRDye700DX increased with lower fluence rates and correlated with efficacy. The response in EGFR targeted PDT is strongly dependent on fluence rate used. The effectiveness of targeted PDT is, like PDT, dependent on the generation of singlet oxygen and thus the availability of intracellular oxygen.

Additional Metadata
Keywords EGFR, Growth delay, Intravital microscopy, Photodynamic therapy, Photosensitizer, Targeted
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010190, hdl.handle.net/1765/124167
Journal Cancers
Citation
Peng, W. (Wei), de Bruijn, H.S, ten Hagen, T.L.M, Berg, K. (Kristian), Roodenburg, J.L.N, van Dam, G.M. (Go M.), … Robinson, D.J. (2020). In-vivo optical monitoring of the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted photodynamic therapy: The effect of fluence rate. Cancers, 12(1). doi:10.3390/cancers12010190