Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul (Fabaceae family), commonly known as the red angico tree, is a medicinal plant found throughout Brazil’s semi-arid area. In this study, a chemical analysis was performed to investigate the antidiarrheal activity and safety profile of red angico gum (RAG), a biopolymer extracted from the trunk exudate of A. colubrina. Upon FT-IR spectroscopy, RAG showed bands in the regions of 1608 cm−1, 1368 cm−1, and 1029 cm−1, which relate to the vibration of O–H water molecules, deformation vibration of C-O bands, and vibration of the polysaccharide C-O band, respectively, all of which are relevant to glycosidic bonds. The peak molar mass of RAG was 1.89 × 105 g/mol, with the zeta potential indicating electronegativity. RAG demonstrated high yield and solubility with a low degree of impurity. Pre-treatment with RAG reduced the total diarrheal stool and enteropooling. RAG also enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase activity and reduced gastrointestinal transit, and thereby inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contractions. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) demonstrated that RAG can interact with GM1 receptors and can also reduce E. coli-induced diarrhea in vivo. Moreover, RAG did not induce any signs of toxicity in mice. These results suggest that RAG is a possible candidate for the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

Cholera, Diarrhea, Escherichia coli, Fabaceae, Polysaccharide,
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Araújo, T.S.L. (Thiago S. L.), de Oliveira, T.M. (Taiane M.), de Sousa, N.A. (Nayara A.), Souza, L.K.M. (Luan K.M.), Sousa, F.B.M. (Francisca B. M.), de Oliveira, A.P. (Ana P.), … Medeiros, J.V.R. (Jand Venes R.). (2020). Biopolymer extracted from anadenanthera colubrina (Red angico gum) exerts therapeutic potential in mice: antidiarrheal activity and safety assessment. Pharmaceuticals, 13(1). doi:10.3390/ph13010017