Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul (Fabaceae family), commonly known as the red angico tree, is a medicinal plant found throughout Brazil’s semi-arid area. In this study, a chemical analysis was performed to investigate the antidiarrheal activity and safety profile of red angico gum (RAG), a biopolymer extracted from the trunk exudate of A. colubrina. Upon FT-IR spectroscopy, RAG showed bands in the regions of 1608 cm−1, 1368 cm−1, and 1029 cm−1, which relate to the vibration of O–H water molecules, deformation vibration of C-O bands, and vibration of the polysaccharide C-O band, respectively, all of which are relevant to glycosidic bonds. The peak molar mass of RAG was 1.89 × 105 g/mol, with the zeta potential indicating electronegativity. RAG demonstrated high yield and solubility with a low degree of impurity. Pre-treatment with RAG reduced the total diarrheal stool and enteropooling. RAG also enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase activity and reduced gastrointestinal transit, and thereby inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contractions. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) demonstrated that RAG can interact with GM1 receptors and can also reduce E. coli-induced diarrhea in vivo. Moreover, RAG did not induce any signs of toxicity in mice. These results suggest that RAG is a possible candidate for the treatment of diarrheal diseases.

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Keywords Cholera, Diarrhea, Escherichia coli, Fabaceae, Polysaccharide
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Journal Pharmaceuticals
Araújo, T.S.L. (Thiago S. L.), de Oliveira, T.M. (Taiane M.), de Sousa, N.A. (Nayara A.), Souza, L.K.M. (Luan K.M.), Sousa, F.B.M. (Francisca B. M.), de Oliveira, A.P. (Ana P.), … Medeiros, J.V.R. (Jand Venes R.). (2020). Biopolymer extracted from anadenanthera colubrina (Red angico gum) exerts therapeutic potential in mice: antidiarrheal activity and safety assessment. Pharmaceuticals, 13(1). doi:10.3390/ph13010017