The Rhine in the long 19th century
Creating the lower Rhine economy. Creating the lower Rhine economy
In 1815, the Vienna Congress founded the Central Commission for Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR). France, the Netherlands, Prussia and four other German states became members. According to the Vienna agreement, Rhine navigation could not be prohibited for anyone and should be free from the point where the river became navigable to the sea. Initially, the CCNR was unsuccessful, as the monarchs of member states protected local interests by levying tolls and taxes. From the moment that Prussia became dominant and its industrial centre along the Ruhr became of vital importance, this commission became its instrument to modernize the Rhine and Rhine transport and make it competitive against railways.