Purpose: The aim of the study was to analyze early mortality after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation which remains high. Methods: We analyzed consecutive (n = 2689) patients from the European Registry for Patients with Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS) undergoing continuous-flow LVAD implantation. The primary outcome was early (< 90 days) mortality. Secondary outcomes were differential causes of early post-operative death following LVAD implantation. Results: Univariable and multivariable analysis as well as regression analysis were used to examine determinants and differential causes of early (< 90 days) mortality after LVAD implantation. During the first 90 days, 2160 (80%) patients were alive with ongoing LVAD support, 40(2%) patients underwent heart transplantation, and 487(18%) deceased. The main causes of early death were MOF (36%), sepsis (28%), cardiopulmonary failure (CPF; 10%), CVA (9%), and right-sided heart failure (RHF, 8%). Furthermore, MOF and sepsis are 70% of causes of death in the first week. Independent clinical predictors of early death were age, female sex, INTERMACS profile 1 to 3, and ECMO. Laboratory predictors included elevated serum creatinine, total bilirubin, lactate, and low hemoglobin. Furthermore, hemodynamic predictors included elevated RA-to-PCWP ratio, pulmonary vascular resistance, and low systemic vascular resistance. Longer total implantation time was also independent predictor of early mortality. A simple model of 12 variables predicts early mortality following LVAD implantation with a good discriminative power with area under the curve of 0.75. Conclusions: In the EUROMACS registry, approximately one out of five patients die within 90 days after LVAD implantation. Early mortality is primarily dominated by multiorgan failure followed by sepsis. A simple model identifies important parameters which are associated with early mortality following LVAD implantation.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Causes, Intensive care, Left ventricular assist device, Mortality, Predictors
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05939-1, hdl.handle.net/1765/124567
Journal Intensive Care Medicine
Citation
Akin, S, Soliman, O.I.I, de By, T.M.M.H. (Theo M. M. H.), Muslem, R, Tijssen, J.G.P, Schoenrath, F. (Felix), … Caliskan, K.C. (2020). Causes and predictors of early mortality in patients treated with left ventricular assist device implantation in the European Registry of Mechanical Circulatory Support (EUROMACS). Intensive Care Medicine. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-05939-1