The specialty of neonatology has undergone comprehensive changes with improved diagnostic tools and therapeutic measures, thereby improving the health care for vulnerable fetuses and newborns. Neonatologists are now involved in prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care. Developments in fetal imaging have broadened the time period in which multidisciplinary counseling concerning prenatal and postnatal strategies can be performed. Lethal congenital defects have changed into treatable defects with improved neonatal outcomes, which lead to new ethical dilemmas for health care professionals and parents. These include considerations regarding termination of pregnancy, performing fetal in utero interventions, and withdrawal of postnatal care. Clinical trials have provided new insights regarding strategies in the delivery room, thereby adapting the practice in the "golden hour" of neonatal life. In newborns requiring support during the fetal-neonatal transition, optimal timing of cord clamping, steps securing the airways, and initial ventilation strategies should be based on individual characteristics. Moreover, many neonatal intensive care guidelines have changed to evidence-based recommendations as a result of numerous innovative trials conducted in the past decades. This chapter will discuss the most recent developments and improvements for neonatal conditions outside the scope of prematurity, illustrating the role of the neonatologist in each time period and highlighting aims for future clinical research projects.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495434, hdl.handle.net/1765/124582
Series Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
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Citation
Horn-Oudshoorn, E.J.J. (Emily J.J.), Dekoninck, P.L.J. (Philip L.J.), & Reiss, I.K.M. (2020). Neonatology is more than caring for micro-preemies!. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. doi:10.1159/000495434