Being born small for gestational age (SGA), defined as a birth weight and/or length below -2 SDS, has several consequences. Short-term consequences include a higher mortality, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia. In the long term, being born SGA is associated with persistent short stature, metabolic and cardiovascular alterations, lower cognition, more behavioral problems, and social and psychological problems. Children born SGA with persistent short stature benefit from growth hormone (GH) treatment which increases longitudinal growth and adult height, and has positive effects on metabolic and cardiovascular health. Additional treatment with GnRHa for 2 years in early puberty can improve adult height even further in children born SGA with an expected adult height <-2.5 SDS at the start of puberty. GH treatment is well tolerated, and serious side effects are uncommon. The safety profile of GH treatment alone or combined with GnRHa is good.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495433, hdl.handle.net/1765/124594
Series Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
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Citation
van der Steen, M, & Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S. (2020). Consequences of being born small for gestational age. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. doi:10.1159/000495433