Objective: To compare immunoglobulin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) during foetal life (cases) with levels in CSF of control neonates. Methods: We identified 16 neonates who underwent lumbar puncture (LP), during the ZIKV epidemic (December/2015 to March/2016) whose mothers reported ZIKV clinical symptoms during gestation (cases). Congenital microcephaly was defined as head circumference ≤31.9 cm (boys) and ≤31.5 cm (girls) for term neonates, or ≤2 standard deviations below the mean for premature (<37 weeks) neonates. Subsequently, we identified neonates who underwent LP in the same lab and fulfilled criteria to be controls: age ≤4 days, CSF white blood cell count ≤8/mm3, CSF protein ≤132 mg/dL, CSF red blood cell count ≤1,000/mm3, neither central nervous system illness, nor congenital infection, nor microcephaly. CSF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by mass spectrometry. Results: 13 controls were included. IgM, IgA, IgG, IgK, and IgL were significantly higher among cases (p < 0.001). Eight (50%) ZIKV exposed infants had congenital microcephaly. These showed the strongest immunoglobulin elevation of the IgM and IgA classes. Conclusion: Neonates exposed to ZIKV infection during gestation present with elevated distinct immunoglobulins in CSF, both in cases that developed microcephaly and in cases that did not.

Cerebrospinal fluid, Congenital Zika virus infection, Immunoglobulins, Mass spectrometry, Microcephaly
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.01.006, hdl.handle.net/1765/124604
Journal of Infection
Department of Neurology

Nascimento-Carvalho, G.C. (Gustavo C.), van Duijn, M.M, Ramos, C.L. (Clara L.), Vilas-Boas, A.-L. (Ana-Luisa), Moreno-Carvalho, O.A. (Otávio A.), Zeneyedpour, L, … Nascimento-Carvalho, C.M. (Cristiana M.). (2020). Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins are increased in neonates exposed to Zika virus during foetal life. Journal of Infection. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.01.006