This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book shows that each country and region, depending on the general social-economic developments, its history, and the actors on the labour market, shares much with others, but has its own characteristics. It presents a synthetic analysis of major features characterising regional labour markets in Europe. The book focuses on regional labour markets in Eastern European countries, starts in chapter ten with a contribution by Rossitsa Rangelova and Katya Vladimirova on Bulgaria. It examines the paradigm of the liberal changes in economic policy and labour market policy. The book analyses one of the most significant cases of regional disparities in income and labour markets in Europe. It focuses on the Republic of Slovakia, which severely suffered the effects of an industrial development policy during the communist regime.