This article discusses the complex and highly regulated process of polypeptide synthesis and secretion. The production of new protein and peptide hormones begins in the cell nucleus with the transcription of messenger RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Next, messenger RNA is translated at the endoplasmatic reticulum membrane into preproteins that subsequently undergo several posttranslational modifications. The newly synthesized proteins and peptides are selectively transported through the Golgi complex towards to plasma membrane where they either wait in specialized vesicles for signals triggering exocytosis or are constitutively excreted.

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Keywords DNA, Endoplasmatic reticulum, Exocytosis, Golgi complex, Messenger RNA, Posttranslational modifications, Protein synthesis, Transcription, Translation, Transport vesicles
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Hofland, J, & de Jong, F.H. (2018). Protein and peptide hormone synthesis. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases (pp. 36–42). doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.64286-1