Background: Quantitative SPECT imaging in targeted radionuclide therapy with lutetium-177 holds great potential for individualized treatment based on dose assessment. The establishment of dose-effect relations requires a standardized method for SPECT quantification. The purpose of this multi-center study is to evaluate quantitative accuracy and inter-system variations of different SPECT/CT systems with corresponding commercially available quantitative reconstruction algorithms. This is an important step towards a vendor-independent standard for quantitative lutetium-177 SPECT. Methods: Four state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems were included: Discovery™ NM/CT 670Pro (GE Healthcare), Symbia Intevo™, and two Symbia™ T16 (Siemens Healthineers). Quantitative accuracy and inter-system variations were evaluated by repeatedly scanning a cylindrical phantom with 6 spherical inserts (0.5 – 113 ml). A sphere-to-background activity concentration ratio of 10:1 was used. Acquisition settings were standardized: medium energy collimator, body contour trajectory, photon energy window of 208 keV (± 10%), adjacent 20% lower scatter window, 2 × 64 projections, 128 × 128 matrix size, and 40 s projection time. Reconstructions were performed using GE Evolution with Q.Metrix™, Siemens xSPECT Quant™, Siemens Broad Quantification™ or Siemens Flash3D™ algorithms using vendor recommended settings. In addition, projection data were reconstructed using Hermes SUV SPECT™ with standardized reconstruction settings to obtain a vendor-neutral quantitative reconstruction for all systems. Volumes of interest (VOI) for the spheres were obtained by applying a 50% threshold of the sphere maximum voxel value corrected for background activity. For each sphere, the mean and maximum recovery coefficient (RCmean and RCmax) of three repeated measurements was calculated, defined as the imaged activity concentration divided by the actual activity concentration. Inter-system variations were defined as the range of RC over all systems. Results: RC decreased with decreasing sphere volume. Inter-system variations with vendor-specific reconstructions were between 0.06 and 0.41 for RCmean depending on sphere size (maximum 118% quantification difference), and improved to 0.02–0.19 with vendor-neutral reconstructions (maximum 38% quantification difference). Conclusion: This study shows that eliminating sources of possible variation drastically reduces inter-system variation in quantification. This means that absolute SPECT quantification for 177Lu is feasible in a multi-center and multi-vendor setting; however, close agreement between vendors and sites is key for multi-center dosimetry and quantitative biomarker studies.,
EJNMMI Physics
Department of Radiology

Peters, S.M.B. (Steffie M. B.), Meyer Viol, S.L. (Sebastiaan L.), van der Werf, N.R, de Jong, N. (Nick), van Velden, F.H.P, Meeuwis, A. (Antoi), … Segbers, M. (2020). Variability in lutetium-177 SPECT quantification between different state-of-the-art SPECT/CT systems. EJNMMI Physics, 7(1). doi:10.1186/s40658-020-0278-3