Rationale: A recent randomized controlled trial showed that a peripheral perfusion–guided resuscitation strategy was associated with lower mortality and less organ dysfunction when compared with lactate-guided resuscitation strategy in patients with septic shock, but the difference in the primary outcome, 28-day mortality, did not reach the proposed statistical significance threshold (P = 0.06). We tested different analytic methods to aid in the interpretation of these results. Objectives: To reassess the results of the ANDROMEDA-SHOCK trial using both Bayesian and frequentist frameworks. Methods: All patients recruited in ANDROMEDA-SHOCK were included. Both a post hoc Bayesian analysis and a mixed logistic regression analysis were performed. The Bayesian analysis included four different priors (optimistic, neutral, null, and pessimistic) for mortality endpoints. The probability of having a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment in the lowest quartile at 72 hours was assessed using Bayesian networks. Measurements and Main Results: In the Bayesian analysis, the posterior probability that a peripheral perfusion–targeted resuscitation strategy is superior to lactate-targeted resuscitation at 28 days was above 90% for all priors; the probability of benefit at 90 days was above 90% for all but the pessimistic prior. Using an optimistic prior, posterior median odds ratios were 0.61 (95% credible interval, 0.41–0.90) and 0.68 (95% credible interval, 0.47–1.01) for 28-day and 90-day mortality, respectively. The comparable frequentist odds ratios for 28-day and 90-day mortality were 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.92) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.45–1.08), respectively. The odds that that patients in the peripheral perfusion–targeted resuscitation arm had Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores in the lower quartile at 72 hours was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.02–2.37). Conclusions: Peripheral perfusion–targeted resuscitation may result in lower mortality and faster resolution of organ dysfunction when compared with a lactate-targeted resuscitation strategy.

Bayesian statistics, Capillary refill time, Lactate, Septic shock
dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201905-0968OC, hdl.handle.net/1765/124897
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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Department of Intensive Care

Zampieri, F.G. (Fernando G.), Damiani, L.P. (Lucas P.), Bakker, J, Ospina-Tascon, G.A, Castro, R, Cavalcanti, A.B. (Alexandre B.), & Hernandez, G. (2020). Effects of a Resuscitation Strategy Targeting Peripheral Perfusion Status versus Serum Lactate Levels among Patients with Septic Shock A Bayesian Reanalysis of the ANDROMEDA-SHOCK Trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 201(4), 423–429. doi:10.1164/rccm.201905-0968OC