Purpose: To assess the impact of baseline liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with 177Lu-Dotatate. Methods: In the phase 3 NETTER-1 trial, patients with advanced, progressive midgut neuroendocrine tumours (NET) were randomised to 177Lu-Dotatate (every 8 weeks, four cycles) plus octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or to octreotide LAR 60 mg. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Analyses of PFS by baseline factors, including liver tumour burden, ALP elevation, and target lesion size, were performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates; hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. Results: Significantly prolonged median PFS occurred with 177Lu-Dotatate versus octreotide LAR 60 mg in patients with low (< 25%), moderate (25–50%), and high (> 50%) liver tumour burden (HR 0.187, 0.216, 0.145), and normal or elevated ALP (HR 0.153, 0.177), and in the presence or absence of a large target lesion (diameter > 30 mm; HR, 0.213, 0.063). Within the 177Lu-Dotatate arm, no significant difference in PFS was observed amongst patients with low/moderate/high liver tumour burden (P = 0.7225) or with normal/elevated baseline ALP (P = 0.3532), but absence of a large target lesion was associated with improved PFS (P = 0.0222). Grade 3 and 4 liver function abnormalities were rare and did not appear to be associated with high baseline liver tumour burden. Conclusions: 177Lu-Dotatate demonstrated significant prolongation in PFS versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with advanced, progressive midgut NET, regardless of baseline liver tumour burden, elevated ALP, or the presence of a large target lesion. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01578239, EudraCT: 2011-005049-11.

Additional Metadata
Keywords 177Lu-Dotatate, Liver tumour burden, NETTER-1, Neuroendocrine tumour, Octreotide
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04709-x, hdl.handle.net/1765/125482
Journal European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Citation
Strosberg, J.R, Kunz, P.L. (Pamela L.), Hendifar, A. (Andrew), Yao, J. (James), Bushnell, D. (David), Kulke, M, … Krenning, E.P. (2020). Impact of liver tumour burden, alkaline phosphatase elevation, and target lesion size on treatment outcomes with 177Lu-Dotatate: an analysis of the NETTER-1 study. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. doi:10.1007/s00259-020-04709-x