Background: Eczema phenotypes based on eczema onset and persistence might better identify groups prone to allergic and respiratory conditions than a binary definition of eczema. We examined the associations of childhood eczema phenotypes with allergic sensitization, allergy, asthma and lung function at school age. Methods: This study among 4277 children was embedded in a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study. Five eczema phenotypes (never, early transient, mid-transient, late transient, persistent) based on parental-reported physician-diagnosed eczema from age 6 months until 10 years were identified. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests, physician-diagnosed allergy and asthma by parent-reported questionnaires, and lung function by spirometry. Adjusted linear, logistic and multinomial regression models were applied. Results: Compared with never eczema, all eczema phenotypes were associated with increased risks of asthma (odds ratios (OR) range (95% confidence interval): 2.68 (1.58, 4.57) to 11.53 (6.65, 20.01)), food and inhalant allergic sensitization (1.72 (1.25, 2.36) to 12.64 (7.20, 22.18)), and physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (1.92 (1.34, 2.74) to 11.91 (7.52, 18.86)). Strongest effect estimates were observed of early and persistent eczema with the risk of physician-diagnosed food allergy (OR 6.95 (3.76, 12.84) and 35.05 (18.33, 70.00), respectively) and combined asthma and physician-diagnosed allergy (7.11 (4.33, 11.67) and 29.03 (15.27, 55.22), respectively). Eczema phenotypes were not associated with lung function measures. Conclusion: Eczema phenotypes were differentially associated with risks of respiratory and allergic conditions in school-aged children. Children with early transient and persistent eczema might benefit from more intense follow-up for early identification and treatment of asthma and allergies.

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Keywords Allergy, Asthma, Birth cohort, Child, Eczema
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Journal Clinical and Translational Allergy
Hu, C. (Chen), Nijsten, T.E.C, van Meel, E.R, Erler, N.S, Piketty, C. (Christophe), de Jong, N.W, … Duijts, L. (2020). Eczema phenotypes and risk of allergic and respiratory conditions in school age children. Clinical and Translational Allergy, 10(1). doi:10.1186/s13601-020-0310-7