Ocular anomalies may occur in craniofacial microsomia (CFM). The aim of this systematic review was to review the literature on ocular anomalies and their incidence, in order to estimate the need for ophthalmological screening in CFM patients. Online databases were searched, and data on the number of patients, type and incidence of ocular anomalies, and visual acuity were extracted. Four subgroups of ocular and adnexal anomalies were identified, to provide an overview of the different anomalies. Twenty-five papers analysing 1419 patients in total were included. Ocular anomalies were documented in 6.7–100% of patients. The most reported type I ocular anomalies were eyelid coloboma, lipodermoids, and orbital dystopia. The most reported type II ocular anomalies were epibulbar dermoid, microphthalmia, and anophthalmia. Ptosis and strabismus were the most reported type III anomalies, and irregular astigmatism was the most reported type IV ocular anomaly. Visual impairment in general was reported in 8–71.4% of patients, with severe visual impairment in 11.1–71.4% and amblyopia in 16.3%. This study provides a detailed overview of ocular anomalies in CFM and their prevalence. Furthermore, we propose a new classification to organize ocular anomalies into four clinically relevant subtypes. Finally, the high prevalence of ocular anomalies and visual impairment in this study suggests that CFM patients should undergo ophthalmological screening at least once during the sensitive period.

Additional Metadata
Keywords adnexal anomalies, craniofacial microsomia, Goldenhar syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, ocular anomalies, oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, systematic review
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2020.03.003, hdl.handle.net/1765/125943
Journal International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Citation
Rooijers, W. (W.), Caron, C.J.J.M, Loudon, S.E, Padwa, B.L, Dunaway, D.J, Forrest, C.R. (C. R.), & Koudstaal, M.J. (2020). Ocular and adnexal anomalies in craniofacial microsomia: a systematic review. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2020.03.003