Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into how population health management (PHM) strategies can successfully integrate and reorganize public health, health care, social care and community services to improve population health and quality of care while reducing costs growth, this study compared four large-scale transformation programs: Greater Manchester Devolution, Vancouver Healthy City Strategy, Gen-H Cincinnati and Gesundes Kinzigtal. Design/methodology/approach: Following the realist methodology, this explorative comparative case-study investigated PHM initiatives' key features and participants' experiences of developing such initiatives. A semi-structured interview guideline based on a theoretical framework for PHM guided the interviews with stakeholders (20) from different sectors. Findings: Five initial program theories important to the development of PHM were formulated: (1) create trust in a shared vision and understanding of the PHM rationale to establish stakeholders' commitment to the partnership; (2) create shared ownership for achieving the initiative's goals; (3) create shared financial interest that reduces perceived financial risks to provide financial sustainability; (4) create a learning environment to secure initiative's credibility and (5) create citizens' and professionals' awareness of the required attitudes and behaviours. Originality/value: The study highlights initial program theories for the implementation of PHM including different strategies and structures underpinning the initiatives. These insights provide a deeper understanding of how large-scale transformation could be developed.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cross-sector partnerships, International comparison PHM initiatives, Population health management, Realist evaluation
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1108/JHOM-06-2019-0189, hdl.handle.net/1765/126185
Journal Journal of Health, Organisation and Management
Citation
Steenkamer, B, de Weger, E. (Esther), Drewes, H.W, Putters, K, Oers, H.A.M, & Baan, C.A. (2020). Implementing population health management: an international comparative study. Journal of Health, Organisation and Management. doi:10.1108/JHOM-06-2019-0189