Developmental bone formation occurs via two distinct pathways. One of these, endochondral ossification, involves the formation of a cartilage intermediate that is ultimately remodeled into bone over time. Researchers in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) have demonstrated promising results when recapitulating this approach to generate new bone and bridge large bone defects. This chapter briefly discusses developmental bone formation and then the current state of the art of TERM-based approaches to generate new bone by the endochondral route. Finally we address some of the issues that will need to be dealt with to translate this approach to the clinic.

Bone defect repair, Bone development, Bone tissue engineering, Chondrocyte, Collagen type X, Endochondral ossification, Immune system, Intramembranous ossification, Osteoblast, Regenerative medicine, Vascularization,
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kiernan, C, Knuth, C.A, & Farrell, E. (2018). Endochondral ossification: Recapitulating bone development for bone defect repair. In Developmental Biology and Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering: Principles and Applications (pp. 125–148). doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-811467-4.00006-1