We examined the relative contribution of genetic, shared environmental and non-shared environmental factors to the covariance between parental sensitivity and limit-setting observed twice in a longitudinal study using a child-based twin design. Parental sensitivity and parental limit-setting were observed in 236 parents with each of their same-sex toddler twin children (Mage = 3.8 years; 58% monozygotic). Bivariate behavioral genetic models indicated substantial effects of similar shared environmental factors on parental sensitivity and limit-setting and on the overlap within sensitivity and limit-setting across 1 year. Moderate child-driven genetic effects were found for parental limit-setting in year 1 and across 1 year. Genetic child factors contributing to explaining the variance in limit-setting over time were the same, whereas shared environmental factors showed some overlap.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13365, hdl.handle.net/1765/126283
Journal Child Development
Euser, S. (Saskia), Bosdriesz, J.R. (Jizzo R.), Vrijhof, C.I. (Claudia I.), van den Bulk, B.G. (Bianca G.), van Hees, D. (Debby), de Vet, S.M. (Sanne M.), … Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J. (2020). How Heritable are Parental Sensitivity and Limit-Setting? A Longitudinal Child-Based Twin Study on Observed Parenting. Child Development. doi:10.1111/cdev.13365