The inflammasome machinery has recently been recognized as an emerging pillar of innate immunity. However, little is known regarding the interaction between the classical interferon (IFN) response and inflammasome activation in response to norovirus infection. We found that murine norovirus (MNV-1) infection induces the transcription of IL-1β, a hallmark of inflammasome activation, which is further increased by inhibition of IFN response, but fails to trigger the release of mature IL-1β. Interestingly, pharmacological inflammasome inhibitors do not affect viral replication, but slightly reverse the inflammasome activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inhibition of MNV replication. LPS efficiently stimulates the transcription of IFN-β through NF-ĸB, which requires the transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7. This activates downstream antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) via the JAK-STAT pathway. Moreover, inhibition of NF-ĸB and JAK-STAT signaling partially reverse LPS-mediated anti-MNV activity, suggesting additional antiviral mechanisms activated by NF-ĸB. This study reveals additional insight in host defense against MNV infection.

Inflammasome, Interferon, Lipopolysaccharide, Macrophages, Norovirus,
Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Yu, P. (Peifa), Li, Y. (Yang), Wang, Y. (Yining), Peppelenbosch, M.P, & Pan, Q. (2020). Lipopolysaccharide restricts murine norovirus infection in macrophages mainly through NF-kB and JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Virology, 546, 109–121. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2020.04.010