Purpose: To develop and validate a population pharmacokinetic model of ciprofloxacin intravenously in critically ill patients, and determine target attainment to provide guidance for more effective regimens. Methods: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling was used for the model development and covariate analysis. Target attainment of an ƒAUC0–24/MIC ≥ 100 for different MICs was calculated for standard dosing regimens. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the probability of target attainment (PTA) of several dosing regimens. Results: A total of 204 blood samples were collected from 42 ICU patients treated with ciprofloxacin 400–1200 mg/day, with median values for age of 66 years, APACHE II score of 22, BMI of 26 kg/m2, and eGFR of 58.5 mL/min/1.73 m2. The median ƒAUC0–24 and ƒCmax were 29.9 mg•h/L and 3.1 mg/L, respectively. Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model. We did not find any significant covariate to add to the structural model. The proportion of patients achieving the target ƒAUC0–24/MIC ≥ 100 were 61.9% and 16.7% with MICs of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Results of the PTA simulations suggest that a dose of ≥ 1200 mg/day is needed to achieve sufficient ƒAUC0–24/MIC ratios. Conclusions: The model described the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in ICU patients adequately. No significant covariates were found and high inter-individual variability of ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics in ICU patients was observed. The poor target attainment supports the use of higher doses such as 1200 mg/day in critically ill patients, while the variability of inter-individual pharmacokinetics parameters emphasizes the need for therapeutic drug monitoring to ensure optimal exposure.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Ciprofloxacin, Critically ill patients, NONMEM, Population pharmacokinetics, Target attainment
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02873-5, hdl.handle.net/1765/126648
Journal European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Abdulla, A, Rogouti, O. (Omar), Hunfeld, N.G.M, Endeman, H, Dijkstra, A. (Annemieke), van Gelder, T, … Koch, B.C.P. (2020). Population pharmacokinetics and target attainment of ciprofloxacin in critically ill patients. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. doi:10.1007/s00228-020-02873-5