Introduction: Music can have a positive effect on stress and general task performance. This randomized crossover study assessed the effects of preferred music on laparoscopic surgical performance in a simulated setting. Methods: Sixty medical students, inexperienced in laparoscopy, were included between June 2018 and November 2018. A randomized, 4-period, 4-sequence, 2-treatment crossover study design was used, with each participant acting as its own control. Participants performed four periods, consisting of five peg transfer tasks each period, on a laparoscopic box trainer: two periods while wearing active noise-cancelling headphones and two periods during music exposure. Participants were randomly allocated to a sequence determining the order of the four periods. The parameters time to task completion, path length and normalized jerk were assessed. Mental workload was assessed using the Surgical Task Load Index questionnaire. Also, heart rate and blood pressure were assessed. Results: Participants performed the peg transfer task significantly faster [median difference: − 0.81 s (interquartile range, − 3.44–0.69) p = 0.037] and handled their instruments significantly more efficient as path length was reduced [median difference, − 52.24 mm (interquartile range, − 196.97–89.81) p = 0.019] when exposed to music. Also, mental workload was significantly reduced during music [median difference, − 2.41 (interquartile range, − 7.17–1.83) p = 0.021)]. No statistically significant effect was observed on heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusion: Listening to preferred music improves laparoscopic surgical performance and reduces mental workload in a simulated setting. Trial registration: Trial registration number: NCT04111679.

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Journal World Journal of Surgery
Oomens, P, Fu, V.X, Kleinrensink, V.E.E. (Vincent E. E.), Kleinrensink, G.J, & Jeekel, J. (2020). The Effects of Preferred Music on Laparoscopic Surgical Performance: A Randomized Crossover Study. World Journal of Surgery. doi:10.1007/s00268-020-05523-0