The effectiveness of decision making of governments in times of crisis depends largely on their ability to integrate and make sense of information. Covid-19, for which we currently do not have a cure available, confronts governments with the difficult task of making decisions in the interest of public health and safety. Essentially, governments have to react to a threat, of which the extent is unknown, and they are making decisions in the midst of immense uncertainty. From history we know that biases and errors can distort our thinking process and can lead to negative outcomes. This article proposes that team reflexivity—a deliberate process of discussing team goals, processes, or outcomes—can function as an antidote to biases and errors in decision making during a crisis. Prior research has identified several information-processing failures, such as groupthink, where decisions are made based on a biased sampling of information and the focus is on agreement at all costs. Once a decision is implemented, there is a tendency for biases and errors to be even more pronounced. The tendency is that people with dissenting opinions or who present information that threatens the consensus, are often ignored, whipped into agreement or worse. We highlight team reflexivity as a critical information-processing activity that can improve decision making processes in uncertain times.

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Keywords Covid-19, crisis, reflexivity, information-processing failures, groupthink
Persistent URL
Series ERIM Report Series Research in Management
Journal ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management
Schippers, M.C, & Martins Van Jaarsveld, G. (2020). Optimizing Decision-Making Processes in Times of Covid-19: Using Reflexivity to Counteract Information Processing Failures (No. ERS-2020-003-LIS). ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from