Objective: We aimed to validate a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Dutch pregnant women, against three 24 h-recalls and blood concentrations of B-vitamins and fatty acids, using the method of triads. Methods: We included 83 pregnant women from the general population of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, at a median gestational age of 15.6 weeks. Participants completed three non-consecutive 24 h-recalls, and subsequently filled out the 293-item FFQ. Participants provided blood samples from which we analyzed serum folate and vitamin B12, as well as red blood cell folate, linoleic acid, and total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results: Estimated energy intake did not differ between the FFQ and 24 h-recalls. Deattenuated Pearson’s correlation coefficients, between energy-adjusted nutrient intake estimates from the FFQ and the 24 h-recalls, ranged from 0.41 (fat) to 0.88 (fiber) for macronutrients, and were around 0.6 for most micronutrients, except for vitamin E (0.27). Using the triad method, we obtained validity coefficients of 0.86 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.36, 1.00) for serum folate, 0.86 (95% CI 0.18, 1.00) for red blood cell folate, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.42, 1.00) for vitamin B12. Validity coefficients for serum fatty acids ranged from 0.22 to 0.67. Conclusion: This FFQ is a reliable tool for estimating intake of energy, macronutrients, folate and vitamin B12 among women in mid-pregnancy.

Cohort, Food-frequency questionnaire, Method of triads, Pregnancy, Validation
dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051341, hdl.handle.net/1765/126900
Department of Epidemiology

Voortman, R.G, Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M. (Régine P. M.), Bergen, N.E, Jaddoe, V.W.V, Looman, C.W.N, Kiefte-de Jong, J.C, & Schalekamp-Timmermans, S. (2020). Validation of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for dutch pregnant women from the general population using the method or triads. Nutrients, 12(5). doi:10.3390/nu12051341