The paper gives an overview of institutions observed in value chain models in the course of action research by the University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies (UP CIDS) Program on Escaping the Middle-Income Trap: Chains for Change (EMIT:C4C). It reviews key concepts and principles from new institutional economics (NIE) and other schools of institutionalism and illustrates these through observed examples from the models. Key concepts are drawn from the work of North (1990), Ostrom (1990, 1999), Greif (1993, 2005), and Coase (1937, 2005). Concepts found in the Sociology and Political Science (e.g., social homogeneity and polyvalent ties) are also introduced and pursued when relevant.

Institutions, inclusive value chains, interlinked transactions, bundled contracts, smallholders
UP CIDS Discussion Paper Series
Rotterdam School of Management (RSM), Erasmus University

Capacio, J.L.D, De Dios, E.S, de Guzman, R.T, & van Tulder, R. (2020). Creating inclusive institutions. UP CIDS Discussion Paper Series. Retrieved from