CLSI and EUCAST susceptibility breakpoints for voriconazole and Candida albicans differ by one dilution (≤0.125 and ≤0.06 mg/liter, respectively) whereas the epidemiological cutoff values for EUCAST (ECOFF) and CLSI (ECV) are the same (0.03 mg/liter). We therefore determined the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints of voriconazole against C. albicans for both methodologies with an in vitro PK/PD model, which was validated using existing animal PK/PD data. Four clinical wild-type and non-wild-type C. albicans isolates (voriconazole MICs, 0.008 to 0.125 mg/liter) were tested in an in vitro PK/PD model. For validation purposes, mouse PK were simulated and in vitro PD were compared with in vivo outcomes. Human PK were simulated, and the exposure-effect relationship area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of a drug from 0 to 24 h (fAUC0-24)/MIC was described for EUCAST and CLSI 24/48-h methods. PK/PD breakpoints were determined using the fAUC0-24/MIC associated with half-maximal activity (EI50) and Monte Carlo simulation analysis. The in vitro 24-h PD EI50 values of voriconazole against C. albicans were 2.5 to 5 (1.5 to 17) fAUC/MIC. However, the 72-h PD were higher at 133 (51 to 347) fAUC/MIC for EUCAST and 94 (35 to 252) fAUC/MIC for CLSI. The mean (95% confidence interval) probability of target attainment (PTA) was 100% (95 to 100%), 97% (72 to 100%), 83% (35 to 99%), and 49% (8 to 91%) for EUCAST and 100% (97 to 100%), 99% (85 to 100%), 91% (52 to 100%), and 68% (17 to 96%) for CLSI for MICs of 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, and 0.25 mg/liter, respectively. Significantly, >95% PTA values were found for EUCAST/CLSI MICs of ≤0.03 mg/liter. For MICs of 0.06 to 0.125 mg/liter, trough levels 1 to 4 mg/liter would be required to attain the PK/PD target. A PK/PD breakpoint of C. albicans voriconazole at the ECOFF/ECV of 0.03 mg/liter was determined for both the EUCAST and CLSI methods, indicating the need for breakpoint harmonization for the reference methodologies.

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Keywords antifungal susceptibility testing, breakpoints, Candida albicans, CLSI, EUCAST, PK/PD, susceptibility breakpoints, voriconazole
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Journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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Beredaki, M.-I. (Maria-Ioanna), Georgiou, P.-C. (Panagiota-Christina), Siopi, M, Kanioura, L, Andes, D, Arendrup, M.C, … Meletiadis, J. (2020). Toward Harmonization of Voriconazole CLSI and EUCAST Breakpoints for Candida albicans Using a Validated In Vitro Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 64(6). doi:10.1128/AAC.00170-20