Introduction: Literature on prevalence of symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis is scarce and heterogeneous. Prevalence may have decreased in recent years due to improved management of cardiovascular risk factors. We aim to estimate current prevalence and identify risk factors of ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis in patients with recent hemispheric transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke in the Netherlands. Patients and methods: We included consecutive adult patients admitted to two large hospitals in the Netherlands in 2014 who suffered from amaurosis fugax, retinal ischaemia, transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke in the vessel territory of the internal carotid artery. Primary outcome was presence of ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (degree subdivided following NASCET criteria), as assessed with duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography angiography and/or magnetic resonance angiography. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for the presence of a 50–100% internal carotid artery stenosis. Results: We analysed 883 consecutive patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke. Of these, 110 (12.5%) had 50–99% ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. Subgroup analyses showed higher prevalence of any degree of internal carotid artery stenosis for male sex and White patients. In adjusted analyses, higher age (odds ratio 1.4/10 years; 95% confidence interval 1.16–1.63), male sex (odds ratio 2.8; 95% confidence interval 1.83–4.19), retinal ischaemia (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.32–4.76) and current smoking (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.09–2.79) were statistically significant risk factors for 50–100% internal carotid artery stenosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of internal carotid artery stenosis seems to be lower in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke than stated in previous studies. We found that higher age, male sex, White ethnicity, retinal ischaemia and current smoking were important risk factors for symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Carotid artery, cerebral infarction, epidemiology, ethnicity, prevalence, stenosis, stroke, transient ischaemic attack
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987320932065, hdl.handle.net/1765/127831
Journal European Stroke Journal
Citation
den Brok, M.G.H.E. (Melina GHE), Kuhrij, L.S. (Laurien S), Roozenbeek, B, van der Lugt, A, Hilkens, P.H.E. (Pieter HE), Dippel, D.W.J. (Diederik WJ), & Nederkoorn, P.J. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors of symptomatic carotid stenosis in patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke in the Netherlands. European Stroke Journal. doi:10.1177/2396987320932065