Purpose: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable hereditary disorder caused by the deficiency of sterol 27-hydroxylase, which is encoded by the CYP27A1 gene. Different newborn screening biomarkers for CTX have been described, including 7α,12α-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7α12αC4), 5β-cholestane-3α,7α,12α,25-tetrol glucuronide (GlcA-tetrol), the ratio of GlcA-tetrol to tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (t-CDCA) (GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA), and the ratio of tauro-trihydroxycholestanoic acid (t-THCA) to GlcA-tetrol (t-THCA/GlcA-tetrol). We set out to evaluate these screening methods in a research study using over 32,000 newborn dried blood spots (DBS). Methods: Metabolites were extracted from DBS with methanol containing internal standard, which was then quantified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Results: The measurement of 7α12αC4 was complicated by isobaric interferences and was discontinued. A total of 32,737 newborns were screened based on the GlcA-tetrol concentration in DBS. GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA and t-THCA/GlcA-tetrol ratios were also calculated. Newborns displaying both elevated GlcA-tetrol and GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA ratio were considered to be screen positives. The t-THCA/GlcA-tetrol ratio was used to further distinguish CTX screen positives from Zellweger Spectrum Disorder (ZSD) screen positives. Only one newborn displayed both elevated GlcA-tetrol concentration in DBS and a typical CTX biochemical profile. This newborn was interpreted as a CTX-affected patient as CYP27A1 gene sequencing identified two known pathogenic variants. Conclusion: The results indicate that both GlcA-tetrol and the GlcA-tetrol/t-CDCA ratio are excellent CTX biomarkers suitable for newborn screening. By characterizing the relationship of GlcA-tetrol, t-CDCA, and t-THCA as secondary markers, 100% assay specificity can be achieved.

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Keywords biomarker, biomarker ratio, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, CYP27A1, newborn screening
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0846-x, hdl.handle.net/1765/127849
Journal Genetics in Medicine
Hong, X. (Xinying), Daiker, J. (Jessica), Sadilek, M. (Martin), Debarber, A.E, Chiang, J. (John), Duan, J. (Jie), … Gelb, M.H. (Michael H.). (2020). Toward newborn screening of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: results of a biomarker research study using 32,000 newborn dried blood spots. Genetics in Medicine. doi:10.1038/s41436-020-0846-x