BACKGROUND: In children born small for gestational age (SGA) with persistent short stature, 2 years of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa), in addition to long-term growth hormone (GH) treatment, can improve adult height. We assessed safety on metabolic and bone health of GnRHa/GH treatment during 5 years after cessation of GH. METHODS: A total of 363 young adults born SGA, previously treated with combined GnRHa/GH or GH-only, were followed for 5 years after attainment of adult height at GH cessation and 2 and 5 years thereafter. Data at 5 years after GH cessation, at age 21 years, were also compared with 145 age-matched adults born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance (FSIGT) tests were used to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, and β-cell function. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. FINDINGS: In the GnRHa/GH and GH-only groups, fat mass increased during the 5 years after GH cessation, but the changes in FSIGT results, body composition, blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and BMD were similar in both groups. At age 21 years, the GnRHa/GH group had similar fat mass, FSIGT results, blood pressure, serum lipid levels and BMD-total body as the GH-only group and the AGA control group, a higher BMD-lumbar spine and lower lean body mass than the AGA control group. INTERPRETATION: This study during 5 years after GH cessation shows that addition of 2 years of GnRHa treatment to long-term GH treatment of children short in stature born SGA has no unfavorable effects on metabolic and bone health in early adulthood. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN96883876, ISRCTN65230311 and ISRCTN18062389.

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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Pediatrics

Goedegebuure, W.J. (Wesley J.), van der Steen, M, Kerkhof, G.F, & Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S. (2020). Longitudinal Study on Metabolic Health in Adults SGA During 5 Years After GH With or Without 2 Years of GnRHa Treatment. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 105(8). doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa287