This chapter analyzes the results of the introduction of citizen participation in a non-western context, namely in Mozambique. It is based on an empirical analysis of the MAMM program, a participatory integrated rural development program in Nampula, Northern Mozambique, carried out in 2003. The chapter examines the history of Mozambique and of the current political system. It then presents the MAMM program and its aims. The donor, a Dutch NGO (SNV), made a serious attempt to build effective local ownership and participation in development efforts. This chapter brings to the fore a third and so far neglected obstacle to donor-induced participation, namely the absence of effective democratic structures and institutions. In fact, too often the presence of institutions such as elections and parliament creates an appearance of democracy, but does not guarantee real democratic participation and accountability.,
Erasmus University Rotterdam

Bekkers, V.J.J.M, & Edwards, A.R. (2016). Legitimacy and democracy: A conceptual framework for assessing governance practices. In Governance and the Democratic Deficit: Assessing the Democratic Legitimacy of Governance Practices (pp. 35–60). doi:10.4324/9781315585451-4