Objectives: To develop an automatic method for identification and segmentation of clinically significant prostate cancer in low-risk patients and to evaluate the performance in a routine clinical setting. Methods: A consecutive cohort (n = 292) from a prospective database of low-risk patients eligible for the active surveillance was selected. A 3-T multi-parametric MRI at 3 months after inclusion was performed. Histopathology from biopsies was used as reference standard. MRI positivity was defined as PI-RADS score ≥ 3, histopathology positivity was defined as ISUP grade ≥ 2. The selected cohort contained four patient groups: (1) MRI-positive targeted biopsy-positive (n = 116), (2) MRI-negative systematic biopsy-negative (n = 55), (3) MRI-positive targeted biopsy-negative (n = 113), (4) MRI-negative systematic biopsy-positive (n = 8). Group 1 was further divided into three sets and a 3D convolutional neural network was trained using different combinations of these sets. Two MRI sequences (T2w, b = 800 DWI) and the ADC map were used as separate input channels for the model. After training, the model was evaluated on the remaining group 1 patients together with the patients of groups 2 and 3 to identify and segment clinically significant prostate cancer. Results: The average sensitivity achieved was 82–92% at an average specificity of 43–76% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.65 to 0.89 for different lesion volumes ranging from > 0.03 to > 0.5 cc. Conclusions: The proposed deep learning computer-aided method yields promising results in identification and segmentation of clinically significant prostate cancer and in confirming low-risk cancer (ISUP grade ≤ 1) in patients on active surveillance. Key Points: • Clinically significant prostate cancer identification and segmentation on multi-parametric MRI is feasible in low-risk patients using a deep neural network. • The deep neural network for significant prostate cancer localization performs better for lesions with larger volumes sizes (> 0.5 cc) as compared to small lesions (> 0.03 cc). • For the evaluation of automatic prostate cancer segmentation methods in the active surveillance cohort, the large discordance group (MRI positive, targeted biopsy negative) should be included.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Active surveillance, Diagnosis, computer-assisted, Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging, Neural networks (computer), Prostate cancer
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07008-z, hdl.handle.net/1765/128171
Journal European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology
Arif, M. (Muhammad), Schoots, I.G, Castillo Tovar, J. (Jose), Bangma, C.H, Krestin, G.P, Roobol-Bouts, M.J, … Veenland, J.F. (2020). Clinically significant prostate cancer detection and segmentation in low-risk patients using a convolutional neural network on multi-parametric MRI. European Radiology: journal of the European Congress of Radiology. doi:10.1007/s00330-020-07008-z