Introduction: Hyponatremia is the most common fluid and electrolyte abnormality. It is associated with much higher morbidity and mortality rates than found in non hyponatremic patients. Areas covered: When the physician is faced to a hyponatremic patient he first has to confirm that hyponatremia is associated with hypoosmolality. Then he must answer to a series of questions: What is its origin? Is it acute or chronic? Which treatment is the most appropriate? We will discuss the various options for the treatment of hypotonic hyponatremia. For a better comprehensive approach of the treatment we will also discuss some pathophysiological data. The use of urea in euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia will be particularly discussed. Literature was reviewed from Jan 1970 to Dec 2019. Expert opinion: Prospective studies showing the benefit in decreasing morbidity by increasing SNa in patients with chronic hyponatremia should be done. These studies should also compare the efficacy and side effects of urea therapy compare to vaptans.

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Keywords Hyponatremia, furosemide, urea, vaptans, hypertonic saline, ODS, uric acid, bicarbonate
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Journal Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Decaux, G, & Kengne, F.G. (2020). Hypertonic saline, isotonic saline, water restriction, long loops diuretics, urea or vaptans to treat hyponatremia. Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 15(3), 195–214. doi:10.1080/17446651.2020.1755259