Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises two subtypes with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities of either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22). Since longterm response to chemotherapy in these leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. To evaluate the outcomes of allogeneic transplantation in this indication, we studied 631 patients reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry between the years 2000 and 2014. Leukemia-free survival probabilities at two and five years were 59.1% and 54.1%, while overall survival probabilities were 65% and 58.2%, respectively. The incidence of relapse and risk of non-relapse mortality at the same time points were 19.8% and 22.5% for relapse and 20.9% and 23.3% for non-relapse mortality, respectively. The most important adverse factors influencing leukemia-free and overall survival were: leukemia with t(8;21), presence of three or more additional chromosomal abnormalities, and Karnofsky performance score <80. Relapse risk was increased in t(8;21) leukemia and associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities as well as reduced intensity conditioning. Measurable residual disease in molecular evaluation before transplantation was associated with increased risk of relapse and inferior leukemia-free survival.

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Journal Haematologica
Organisation Department of Hematology
Halaburda, K., Labopin, M, Mailhol, A., Socie, G, Craddock, C.F, Aljurf, M, … Nagler, A. (2018). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in second complete remission for core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: a study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Haematologica, 105(6), 1723–1730. doi:10.3324/haematol.2019.222810