BACKGROUND: The term “end stage” has been used to describe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), defined as occurring when left ventricular ejection fraction is <50%. The prognosis of HCM-LVSD has reportedly been poor, but because of its relative rarity, the natural history remains incompletely characterized. METHODS: Data from 11 high-volume HCM specialty centers making up the international SHaRe Registry (Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy Registry) were used to describe the natural history of patients with HCM-LVSD. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of prognosis and incident development. RESULTS: From a cohort of 6793 patients with HCM, 553 (8%) met the criteria for HCM-LVSD. Overall, 75% of patients with HCM-LVSD experienced clinically relevant events, and 35% met the composite outcome (all-cause death [n=128], cardiac transplantation [n=55], or left ventricular assist device implantation [n=9]). After recognition of HCM-LVSD, the median time to composite outcome was 8.4 years. However, there was substantial individual variation in natural history. Significant predictors of the composite outcome included the presence of multiple pathogenic/likely pathogenic sarcomeric variants (hazard ratio [HR], 5.6 [95% CI, 2.3–13.5]), atrial fibrillation (HR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.7–3.5]), and left ventricular ejection fraction <35% (HR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3–2.8]). The incidence of new HCM-LVSD was ≈7.5% over 15 years. Significant predictors of developing incident HCM-LVSD included greater left ventricular cavity size (HR, 1.1 [95% CI, 1.0–1.3] and wall thickness (HR, 1.3 [95% CI, 1.1–1.4]), left ventricular ejection fraction of 50% to 60% (HR, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2, 2.8]–2.8 [95% CI, 1.8–4.2]) at baseline evaluation, the presence of late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.0–4.9]), and the presence of a pathogenic/likely pathogenic sarcomeric variant, particularly in thin filament genes (HR, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.0–2.1] and 2.5 [95% CI, 1.2–5.1], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HCM-LVSD affects ≈8% of patients with HCM. Although the natural history of HCM-LVSD was variable, 75% of patients experienced adverse events, including 35% experiencing a death equivalent an estimated median time of 8.4 years after developing systolic dysfunction. In addition to clinical features, genetic substrate appears to play a role in both prognosis (multiple sarcomeric variants) and the risk for incident development of HCMLVSD (thin filament variants).

cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic ◼ genetics ◼ heart failure ◼ prognosis ◼ ventricular dysfunction,
Circulation (Baltimore)
Department of Cardiology

Marstrand, P., Han, L., Day, S. M., Olivotto, I, Ashley, E. A., Michels, M, … Ho, C.Y. (2020). Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy With Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Insights From the SHaRe Registry. Circulation (Baltimore), 141(17), 1371–1383. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.119.044366