INTRODUCTION: Recent studies revealed N-glycosylation signatures of type 2 diabetes, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors. Most people with diabetes use medication to reduce cardiovascular risk. The association of these medications with the plasma N-glycome is largely unknown. We investigated the associations of metformin, statin, ACE inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), sulfonylurea (SU) derivatives and insulin use with the total plasma N-glycome in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: After enzymatic release from glycoproteins, N-glycans were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry in the DiaGene (n=1815) and Hoorn Diabetes Care System (n=1518) cohorts. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate associations with medication, adjusted for clinical characteristics. Results were meta-analyzed and corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Metformin and statins were associated with decreased fucosylation and increased galactosylation and sialylation in glycans unrelated to immunoglobulin G. Bisection was increased within diantennary fucosylated non-sialylated glycans, but decreased within diantennary fucosylated sialylated glycans. Only few glycans were associated with ACE inhibitor/ARBs, while none associated with insulin and SU derivative use. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that metformin and statins associate with a total plasma N-glycome signature in type 2 diabetes. Further studies are needed to determine the causality of these relations, and future N-glycomic research should consider medication a potential confounder.

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BMJ open diabetes research & care
Department of Internal Medicine

Singh, S.S. (Sunny S.), Naber, A. (Annemieke), Dotz, V. (Viktoria), Schoep, E. (Emma), Memarian, E. (Elham), Slieker, R, … van Hoek, M. (2020). Metformin and statin use associate with plasma protein N-glycosylation in people with type 2 diabetes. BMJ open diabetes research & care, 8(1). doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001230