Contemporary mortality after emergent open repair of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms
Objective: Mortality after open repair for emergent complex abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is poorly defined. This study evaluated the 30-day mortality of open complex AAA repair performed for rupture or other emergent indication using a national surgical registry. We subsequently identified factors associated with mortality. Methods: The targeted vascular module from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was queried to identify patients undergoing open repair for juxtarenal and suprarenal AAAs or type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysms (TAAAs) for rupture or other emergent indication from 2011 to 2017. Univariate analyses were performed using the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with mortality. Results: We included 374 patients who underwent an emergent complex open AAA repair during the study period. There were 142 (38%) cases performed for rupture with hypotension, 141 (38%) for rupture without hypotension, 40 (11%) for symptomatic AAA, and 51 (14%) for another indication. The distribution by aneurysm type was 224 juxtarenal AAAs, 122 suprarenal AAAs, and 28 type IV TAAAs. Overall, there was a 30-day mortality of 32% (118 deaths). For those with juxtarenal AAA repair, 67 (30%) patients died within 30 days; there were 38 (31%) deaths within 30 days in those with suprarenal AAA, and 13 (46%) deaths within 30 days in those with type IV TAAA. On univariate analysis, preoperative variables associated with death were increasing age, use of a transperitoneal surgical approach, lower preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, low baseline albumin concentration (<3.5 g/dL), need for preoperative transfusion, low body mass index (<18.5 kg/m2), and hypotension at presentation. Intraoperative variables associated with mortality were supraceliac clamp location and concurrent renal revascularization. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with death included rupture with associated hypotension (reference: other emergent indication; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.28; confidence interval [CI], 1.75-5.41; P <.001), age >60 years (reference: <60 years; AOR, 1.59; CI, 1.18-2.13; P =.002), longitudinal laparotomy incision (reference: retroperitoneal; AOR, 3.28; CI, 1.75-6.16; P <.001), and supraceliac cross-clamp (reference: clamp above one renal artery; AOR, 2.14; CI, 1.31-3.50; P =.003). Conclusions: Nearly one-third of patients die within 30 days of emergent open complex AAA repair. Mortality is particularly high for patients with type IV TAAAs, approaching 50%. Predictors of 30-day mortality include rupture with associated hypotension, increasing age, supraceliac clamp location, and longitudinal transperitoneal repair approach. These results will help inform surgical decisions preoperatively and intraoperatively.
|Aorta, Emergency, Mortality, Open surgery|
|Journal of Vascular Surgery|
|Organisation||Department of Vascular Surgery|
Latz, C.A. (Christopher A.), Boitano, L. (Laura), Schwartz, S. (Samuel), Swerdlow, N. (Nicholas), Dansey, K. (Kirsten), Varkevisser, R.R.B. (Rens R.B.), … Schermerhorn, M.L. (2020). Contemporary mortality after emergent open repair of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. In Journal of Vascular Surgery. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2020.03.059