Longitudinal data from multiple cohorts may be analyzed by Bayesian research synthesis. Here, we illustrate this approach by investigating the development of self-control between age 13 and 19 and the role of sex therein in a multi-cohort, longitudinal design. Three Dutch cohorts supplied data: the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR; N = 21,079), Research on Adolescent Development and Relationships-Young (RADAR-Y; N = 497), and Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2,229). Self-control was assessed by one measure in NTR and RADAR-Y, and three measures in TRAILS. In each cohort, we evaluated evidence for competing informative hypotheses regarding the development of selfcontrol. Subsequently, we aggregated this evidence over cohorts and measures to arrive at a robust conclusion that was supported by all cohorts and measures. We found robust evidence for the hypothesis that on average self-control increases during adolescence (i.e., maturation) and that individuals with lower initial self-control often experience a steeper increase in selfcontrol (i.e., a pattern of recovery). From self-report, boys have higher initial self-control levels at age 13 than girls, whereas parents report higher self-control for girls.

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Keywords Research Synthesis, Informative Hypotheses, Longitudinal Analysis, SelfControl, Sex Differences
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100817, hdl.handle.net/1765/128819
Journal Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, M.A.J., Richards, JS, Kevenaar, S.T., Becht, A.I, Hoijtink, H, Oldehinkel, T., … Boomsma, D.I. (2020). Robust longitudinal multi-cohort results: The development of self-control during adolescence. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2020.100817