The clinical presentations of ischaemic heart disease include stable angina pectoris, silent ischaemia, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden death. For many years, unstable angina has been con- sidered as an intermediate ‘syndrome’ between chronic stable angina and acute myocardial infarction. In recent years, its physiopathology has been clarified and there have been major advances in management.

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European Heart Journal
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

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