The incidence of low-energy acetabular fractures has increased. However, the structural factors for these fractures remain unclear. The objective of this study was to extract trabecular bone architecture and proximal femur geometry (PFG) measures from clinical computed tomography (CT) images to (1) identify possible structural risk factors of acetabular fractures, and (2) to discriminate fracture cases from controls using machine learning methods. CT images of 107 acetabular fracture subjects (25 females, 82 males) and 107 age-gender matched controls were examined. Three volumes of interest, one at the acetabulum and two at the femoral head, were extracted to calculate bone volume fraction (BV/TV), gray-level co-occurrence matrix and histogram of the gray values (GV). The PFG was defined by neck shaft angle and femoral neck axis length. Relationships between the variables were assessed by statistical mean comparisons and correlation analyses. Bayesian logistic regression and Elastic net machine learning models were implemented for classification. We found lower BV/TV at the femoral head (0.51 vs. 0.55, p = 0.012) and lower mean GV at both the acetabulum (98.81 vs. 115.33, p < 0.001) and femoral head (150.63 vs. 163.47, p = 0.005) of fracture subjects when compared to their matched controls. The trabeculae within the femoral heads of the acetabular fracture sides differed in structure, density and texture from the corresponding control sides of the fracture subjects. Moreover, the PFG and trabecular architectural variables, alone and in combination, were able to discriminate fracture cases from controls (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.70 to 0.79). In conclusion, lower density in the acetabulum and femoral head with abnormal trabecular structure and texture at the femoral head, appear to be risk factors for low-energy acetabular fractures.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Acetabular fracture, Computed tomography, Gray-level co-occurrence matrix, Machine learning, Trabecular structure
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10439-020-02563-4, hdl.handle.net/1765/128837
Journal Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Citation
Gebre, R.K. (Robel K.), Hirvasniemi, J. (Jukka), Lantto, I. (Iikka), Saarakkala, S. (Simo), Leppilahti, J. (Juhana), & Jämsä, T. (Timo). (2020). Discrimination of Low-Energy Acetabular Fractures from Controls Using Computed Tomography-Based Bone Characteristics. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. doi:10.1007/s10439-020-02563-4