The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of classic infantile Pompe patients treated with 20 mg/kg alglucosidase alfa every other week (eow) to those treated with 40 mg/kg/week, and to study the additional effect of immunomodulation. Six patients received 20 mg/kg eow and twelve 40 mg/kg/week. Five patients were cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)-negative, two in the 20 mg, three in the 40 mg group. We compared (ventilator-free) survival, motor outcome, infusion associated reactions (IARs), and antibody formation. From 2012 on patients >2 months in the 40 mg group also received immunomodulation with rituximab, methotrexate, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT)-naïve setting. Survival was 66% in the 20 mg group and 92% in the 40 mg group. Ventilator-free survival was 50% and 92%. Both CRIM-negative patients in the 20 mg group died, whereas all three are alive in the 40 mg group. In the 20 mg group, 67% learned to walk compared with 92% in the 40 mg group. At the age of 3 years, 33% and 92% were able to walk. Peak antibody titers ranged from 1:1250 to 1:31 250 in the 20 mg group and from 1:250 to 1:800 000 in the 40 mg group. Five patients of the 40 mg group of whom two CRIM-negative also received immunomodulation. B-cell recovery was observed between 5.7 and 7.9 months after the last dose of rituximab. After B-cell recovery titers of patients with and without immunomodulation were similar (ranges 1:6 250-1:800 000 and 1:250-1:781 250). This study shows that classic infantile patients treated with 40 mg/kg/week from the start to end have a better (ventilator-free) survival and motor outcome. Immunomodulation did not prevent antibody formation in our study.

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Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Department of Pediatrics

Poelman, E, Van Den Dorpel, J.J.A, Hoogeveen-Westerveld, M, van den Hout, J.M.P, van der Giessen, L.J, van der Beek, N.A.M.E. (Nadine A. M. E.), … van der Ploeg, A.T. (2020). Effects of higher and more frequent dosing of alglucosidase alfa and immunomodulation on long-term clinical outcome of classic infantile Pompe patients. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. doi:10.1002/jimd.12268