The microcirculation plays a crucial role in the distribution of perfusion to organs. Studies have shown that microcirculatory dysfunction is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. Hence, assessment of liver perfusion offers valuable information on the (patho)physiological state of the liver. The current review explores techniques in perfusion imaging that can be used intraoperatively. Available modalities include dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound, handheld vital microscopes, indocyanine green fluorescence angiography, and laser contrast speckle imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound relays information on deep tissue perfusion and is a commonly used technique to assess tumor perfusion. Handheld vital microscopes provide direct visualization of the sinusoidal architectural structure of the liver, which is a unique feature of this technique. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging uses indocyanine green, a dye that is administered intravenously to visualize microvascular perfusion when excited using near-infrared light. Laser speckle contrast imaging produces non-contact large surface-based tissue perfusion imaging free from movement- or pressure-related artefacts. In this review, we discuss the intrinsic advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their clinical and/or scientific applications.

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Keywords Hepatic microcirculation · Perfusion · Imaging techniques · Intraoperative perfusion imaging
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Journal European Surgical Research: clinical and experimental surgery
Uz, Z. (Zühre), Shen, L. (Lucinda), Milstein, D.M.J, Van Lienden, K.P. (Krijn P.), Swijnenburg, R.-J. (Rutger-Jan), Ince, C. (Can), & van Gulik, T.M. (2020). Intraoperative Imaging Techniques to Visualize Hepatic (Micro)Perfusion: An Overview. European Surgical Research: clinical and experimental surgery. doi:10.1159/000508348