We present an overview of clinical trials involving gene editing using clustered interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), or zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and discuss the underlying mechanisms. In cancer immunotherapy, gene editing is applied ex vivo in T cells, transgenic T cell receptor (tTCR)-T cells, or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells to improve adoptive cell therapy for multiple cancer types. This involves knockouts of immune checkpoint regulators such as PD-1, components of the endogenous TCR and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex to generate universal allogeneic CAR-T cells, and CD7 to prevent self-destruction in adoptive cell therapy. In cervix carcinoma caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), E6 and E7 genes are disrupted using topically applied gene editing machinery. In HIV infection, the CCR5 co-receptor is disrupted ex vivo to generate HIV-resistant T cells, CAR-T cells, or hematopoietic stem cells. In β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, hematopoietic stem cells are engineered ex vivo to induce the production of fetal hemoglobin. AAV-mediated in vivo gene editing is applied to exploit the liver for systemic production of therapeutic proteins in hemophilia and mucopolysaccharidoses, and in the eye to restore splicing of the CEP920 gene in Leber's congenital amaurosis. Close consideration of safety aspects and education of stakeholders will be essential for a successful implementation of gene editing technology in the clinic. Much effort is dedicated to utilize gene-editing technology for the development of treatment options for human disease. This has already resulted in the first clinical trials using gene-editing tools. In this review, Pijnappel and colleagues present an overview of clinical trials involving gene editing and discuss the underlying mechanisms.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.06.022, hdl.handle.net/1765/129248
Journal Molecular Therapy - Methods and Clinical Development
Citation
Ernst, M.P.T. (Martijn P.T.), Broeders, M. (Mike), Herrero-Hernandez, P. (Pablo), Oussoren, E, van der Ploeg, A.T, & Pijnappel, W.W.M.P. (2020). Ready for Repair? Gene Editing Enters the Clinic for the Treatment of Human Disease. Molecular Therapy - Methods and Clinical Development (Vol. 18, pp. 532–557). doi:10.1016/j.omtm.2020.06.022