Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla or flavescens) is a green leafy vegetable whose bioactive compounds have been studied due to its effects on health. We systematically reviewed the nutritional profile and bioactive composition of Swiss chard and reported their concentrations. Four main databases were searched for studies analyzing the chemical composition of Swiss chard. Screening, selection of articles, and data extraction were carried out by two independent reviewers. Twenty-eight articles of 1102 records identified by bibliographic search met our inclusion criteria for final analysis. We found a total of 192 chemical compounds categorized into 23 groups. The cicla variety was the most studied, and nutrients and phytochemicals were reported mainly on leaves. Betalains with 20% of the reported data, fats (16%), flavonoids (11%), non-flavonoid phenolics (11%), terpenes and derivatives (8%), carbohydrates (7%), and minerals (6%) were among the most reported categories. Swiss chard leaves have the highest content of fiber, sodium, magnesium, flavonoids, and vitamin C, while stems are high in potassium. Swiss chard should be considered a source of nutrients and phytochemicals, and further research is needed on identifying and quantifying other bioactive compounds and understanding their impact on health.

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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Department of Epidemiology

Gamba, M. (Magda), Raguindin, P.F. (Peter Francis), Asllanaj, E., Merlo, F. (Francesco), Glisic, M., Minder, B. (Beatrice), … Muka, T. (2020). Bioactive compounds and nutritional composition of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla and flavescens): a systematic review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1799326