Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with varicella zoster immunoglobulins (VZIG) should be administered as soon as possible after exposure to the virus, but always within ten days; in the previous guidelines this was within 96 hours. In cases of perinatal exposure, PEP with VZIG should be administered to neonates if the mother develops clinical chickenpox between seven days before delivery and seven days after delivery; in the previous guidelines this was between five days before delivery and two days after delivery. A new chapter on the treatment of chickenpox has been added to the guidelines.