Cardiac function and vascular function are closely related to the flow of blood within. The flow velocities in these larger cavities easily reach 1 m/s, and generally complex spatiotemporal flow patterns are involved, especially in a non-physiologic state. Visualization of such flow patterns using ultrasound can be greatly enhanced by administration of contrast agents. Tracking the high-velocity complex flows is challenging with current clinical echographic tools, mostly because of limitations in signal-to-noise ratio; estimation of lateral velocities; and/or frame rate of the contrast-enhanced imaging mode. This review addresses the state of the art in 2-D high-frame-rate contrast-enhanced echography of ventricular and deep-vessel flow, from both technological and clinical perspectives. It concludes that current advanced ultrasound equipment is technologically ready for use in human contrast-enhanced studies, thus potentially leading to identification of the most clinically relevant flow parameters for quantifying cardiac and vascular function.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cardiac function, Echo particle image velocimetry, Echography, High frame rate, Particle image velocimetry, Ultrafast, Ultrasound contrast agent, Vascular function, Vortex
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.07.022, hdl.handle.net/1765/129815
Journal Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Organisation Department of Biomedical Engineering
Citation
Vos, H.J, Voorneveld, J.D, Groot Jebbink, E. (Erik), Leow, C.H. (Chee Hau), Nie, L. (Luzhen), van den Bosch, A.E, … Bosch, J.G. (2020). Contrast-Enhanced High-Frame-Rate Ultrasound Imaging of Flow Patterns in Cardiac Chambers and Deep Vessels. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.07.022