Objective: To examine whether anxiety and depression at time of implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and mortality 7 years later. Methods: A cohort of 399 patients (80% men; mean (SD) age = 58.3 (12.2)) implanted with an ICD completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at time of implantation. Patients were followed up for VAs and mortality at 7 years. Results: At 7-years follow-up, 34% of the patients had died and 38% had experienced VAs. Baseline depression (score ≥ 8) (HR:2.10; 95% CI:1.44–3.05, p < 0.001) was associated with 7-year mortality in adjusted analyses while state anxiety (score ≥ 40) (HR:1.45; 95% CI:1.02–2.06, p = 0.039) and trait anxiety (score ≥ 40) (HR:1.51; 95% CI:1.06–2.16, p = 0.022) showed a trend towards an association with mortality. No association was found between VAs and anxiety and depression. There was a dose-response relationship with higher burden of anxiety (HR:2.13; 95% CI:1.31–3.46, p = 0.002) and depression (HR:2.13; 95% CI:1.33–3.42, p = 0.002) measured with the HADS (scores < 8, 8–10 and > 10) being associated with an increased risk of mortality. Conclusion: Patients with depression had greater risk of mortality, whereas anxiety only showed a trend. Neither anxiety nor depression was associated with VAs during follow-up.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Anxiety, Depression, Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Mortality, Ventricular arrhythmias
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2020.07.008, hdl.handle.net/1765/129911
Journal General Hospital Psychiatry
Citation
Andersen, C.M. (Christina M.), Theuns, D.A.M.J, Johansen, J.B. (Jens B.), & Pedersen, S.S. (Susanne S.). (2020). Anxiety, depression, ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: 7 years' follow-up of the MIDAS cohort. General Hospital Psychiatry, 66, 154–160. doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2020.07.008