OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence, prevalence and trends for opioid prescriptions in patients with OA. Furthermore, types of opioids prescribed and long-term prescription rates were examined. Finally, the patient characteristics associated with the prescription of opioids were assessed. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Integrated Primary Care Information database. Incidence and prevalence of opioid prescriptions were calculated for the period 2008-2017. Logistic regression was used to assess which patient characteristics were associated with opioid prescriptions. RESULTS: In total, 157 904 OA patients were included. The overall prescription rate remained fairly stable, at around 100 incident and 170 prevalent prescriptions per 1000 person years. However, the incident prescription rate for oxycodone increased from 7.1 to 40.7 per 1000 person years and for fentanyl from 4.2 to 7.4 per 1000 person years. The incident prescription rate for paracetamol/codeine decreased from 63.0 to 13.3 per 1000 person years. Per follow-up year, long-term use was found in 3% of the patients with incident OA. Finally, factors associated with more prescriptions were increasing age, OA in ≥2 joint groups [odds ratio (OR) 1.56; 95% CI: 1.51, 1.65] and the presence of other musculoskeletal disorders (OR 4.91; 95% CI: 4.76, 5.05). Men were less likely to be prescribed opioids (OR 0.78; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.80). CONCLUSION: Prescription rates for opioids remained stable, but types of opioids prescribed changed. Oxycodone and fentanyl were increasingly prescribed, while prescriptions of paracetamol/codeine decreased. Since the benefit of opioids for OA pain is questionable and side effects are common, opioids should be prescribed with caution.

Additional Metadata
Keywords analgesics, opioids, osteoarthritis, pain
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez646, hdl.handle.net/1765/130082
Journal Rheumatology (United Kingdom)
van den Driest, J.J, Schiphof, D, de Wilde, M, Bindels, P.J.E, van der Lei, J, & Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M. (2020). Opioid prescriptions in patients with osteoarthritis: a population-based cohort study. Rheumatology (United Kingdom), 59(9), 2462–2470. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kez646