Background: Assessment of tissue hypoxia at the bedside has yet to be translated into daily clinical practice in septic shock patients. Perfusion markers are surrogates of deeper physiological phenomena. Lactate-topyruvate ratio (LPR) and the ratio between veno-arterial PCO2 difference and Ca–vO2 (ΔPCO2/Ca–vO2) have been proposed as markers of tissue hypoxia, but they have not been compared in the clinical scenario. We studied acute septic shock patients under resuscitation. We wanted to evaluate the relationship of these hypoxia markers with clinical and biochemical markers of hypoperfusion during septic shock resuscitation. Methods: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Septic shock patients were randomized to fluid resuscitation directed to normalization of capillary refill time (CRT) versus normalization or significant lowering of lactate. Multimodal assessment of perfusion was performed at 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours, and included macrohemodynamic and metabolic perfusion variables, CRT, regional flow and hypoxia markers. Patients who attained their pre-specified endpoint at 2-hours were compared to those who did not. Results: Forty-two patients were recruited, median APACHE-II score was 23 [15–31] and 28-day mortality 23%. LPR and ΔPCO2/Ca–vO2 ratio did not correlate during early resuscitation (0–2 h) and the whole study period (24-hours). ΔPCO2/Ca–vO2 ratio derangements were more prevalent than LPR ones, either in the whole cohort (52% vs. 23%), and in association with other perfusion abnormalities. In patients who reached their resuscitation endpoints, the proportion of patients with altered ΔPCO2/Ca-vO2 ratio decreased significantly (66% to 33%, P=0.045), while LPR did not (14% vs. 25%, P=0.34). Conclusions: Hypoxia markers did not exhibit correlation during resuscitation in septic shock patients. They probably interrogate different pathophysiological processes and mechanisms of dysoxia during early septic shock. Future studies should better elucidate the interaction and clinical role of hypoxia markers during septic shock resuscitation.

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Keywords Hypoxia, septic shock, capillary refill time, lactate
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Pavez, N., Kattan, E, Vera, M., Ferri, G, Valenzuela, E.D., Alegria, L, … Castro, R. (2020). Hypoxia-related parameters during septic shock resuscitation: Pathophysiological determinants and potential clinical implications. ANNALS OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 8(12). doi:10.21037/atm-20-2048