Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) results in high local control (LC) rates in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For central lung tumors, risk-adapted fractionation schedules are used and underdosage to the Planned Target Volume (PTV) is often accepted to respect the dose constraints of the organs at risk in order to avoid high rates of toxicity. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PTV underdosage and other possible prognostic factors on localand disease control after SBRT in patients with central lung tumors. Material and Methods: Patients with centrally located NSCLC treated with SBRT were included. The doses were converted into biologically equivalent dose using a/b-value of 10 Gy (BED10). Underdosage to the PTV was defined as the (percentage of) PTV receiving less than 100 Gy BED10; (%)PTV < 100 BED10. Potential prognostic factors for LC and Disease Free Survival (DFS) were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Results: Two hundred and twenty patients received 12 fractions of SBRT. LC-rates were 88% at 2 years and 81% at 3 years. Twenty-seven patients developed a local recurrence. Both the PTV < 100 BED10 and %PTV < 100 BED10 were not prognostic for LC. Tumor size and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were independently prognostic for LC. Disease progression was reported in 75 patients with DFS-rates of 66% at 2 years and 56% at 3 years. Disease recurrence was independent significantly associated with larger tumor diameter, lower lobe tumor location and decreased FEV1. Grade 4–5 toxicity was reported in 10 patients (8 with ultra-central tumors) and was fatal in at least 3 patients. Conclusion: Decrease in tumor coverage was not correlated with the local recurrence probability. The LC and DFS were promising after SBRT of centrally located NSCLC with tumor size, FEV1 and tumor location (for DFS only) as prognostic factors.

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Journal Acta Oncologica
Duijm, M, van Zyp, NCV, Granton, P.V., van de Vaart, P., Mast, M.E., Oomen - de Hoop, E, … Nuyttens, J.J.M.E. (2020). Prognostic factors of local control and disease free survival in centrally located non-small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy. Acta Oncologica, 59(7), 809–817. doi:10.1080/0284186x.2020.1750693